Ṣadaqatul-Fiṭr, Sadaqah al-Fitr, Zakat-ul-Fit'r, Fitrana means the same.
Whereas Zakat (1 of 5 Five Pillars of Islam) is different from above.
Ibn ’Umar (Raḍiya ’llāhu ‘an-hu) narrated, The Messenger of Allah sallallāhu 'alayhi wasallam (ﷺ) ordered the payment of one Ṣāʿ of dates or one Ṣāʿ of barley as Zakat-ul-fitr (Ṣadaqatul-Fiṭr) on every Muslim, slave or free, male or female, young or old, and he ordered that it be paid before the people went out to offer the 'Id prayer.’ (Agreed upon, Sahih al-Bukhari & Sahih Muslim)
* Ṣāʿ was the measuring unit.
What is Ṣadaqatul-Fiṭr?
Ṣadaqatul-Fiṭr is a charity which is given to the poor on the day of ‘Īd (Eid) so that they can also acquire the happiness of ‘Īd without having to beg.
When does Ṣadaqatul-Fiṭr become obligatory?
Ṣadaqatul-Fiṭr becomes obligatory on every person mentioned above if they are alive at the dawn of ‘Īdul-Fiṭr.
When should Ṣadaqatul-Fiṭr be given?
It is preferable to take out the Ṣadaqatul-Fiṭr before going for ‘Īd Ṣalāh after dawn on the day of ‘Īdul-Fiṭr.
Can Ṣadaqatul-Fiṭr be given in advance?
Yes. Ṣadaqatul-Fiṭr can be given anytime once Ramaḍān commences. The spirit of Ṣadaqatul-Fiṭr is to ensure that even the poor people do not feel deprived on the day of ‘Īd. In view of this, it will be advisable to give Ṣadaqatul-Fiṭr in advance.
Who must discharge obligatory Ṣadaqatul-Fiṭr ?
Ṣadaqatul-Fiṭr is obligatory upon every free sane Muslim who has wealth (productive or non productive) beyond his basic needs and which reaches the value of niṣāb (612.36 grams of silver).
It is also necessary for a father to give Ṣadaqatul-Fiṭr on behalf of his minor children if they do not possess their own wealth to the value of nisāb. If a minor child has his/her own personal wealth which reaches the nisāb then the father can give from this wealth.
Will a person’s obligation be absolved if he does not give Ṣadaqatul-Fiṭr on the day of ‘Īd?
No. The obligation of Ṣadaqatul-Fiṭr will still remain and he will be obliged to give it even after the day of ‘Īd; anytime during his lifetime.
How much is Ṣadaqatul-Fiṭr?
Zakat-ul-Fit'r (Sadaqah al-Fitr) obligation is fulfilled by donating
- ½ Ṣāʿ of wheat
- or 1 Ṣāʿ of barley, dates or raisins.
This does not mean that a person must distribute wheat, barley, dates or raisins. The cash equivalent (retail value) can be given instead of the actual grain itself.
Hence the current values are
Wheat ½ Ṣāʿ = £3.50
Barley 1 Ṣāʿ = £6.40
Dates 1 Ṣāʿ = £15 (Khudri), £20 (Safawi), £45 (Ajwah)
Raisins 1 Ṣāʿ = £20.50
One may also donate £3.50 as minimum value or any of the above. Higher donations reap higher rewards.
Where and how should Ṣadaqatul-Fiṭr be given?
Ṣadaqatul-Fiṭr Fiṭrana must be treated like Zakat and spent on causes which are appropriate for the Zakat.
Please perform the due diligence and ensure that Ṣadaqatul-Fiṭr is donated to a cause or charity which has controls in places to spend your donation as Zakat.
Consult your local scholars for further clarification on Ṣadaqatul-Fiṭr (Zakat-ul-Fit'r, Sadaqah al-Fitr, Fitrana)